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Issue 4 (2017)


This is the fourth issue of the International Journal of Clinical Neurosciences and Mental Health. The journal aims to provide high-quality publications in the areas of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Medical Psychology. This publication is intended to provide a forum for experts from all around the world to share their knowledge, expertise, and research efforts. The journal operates under an Open Access model, and therefore everyone is invited to join this initiative.

Issue Nr:

4

|    Issue date: 2017-04-22

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Adaptive leadership in the promotion of youth mental health - read full article

By: Marta Gonçalves

The aim of this paper is to discuss if adaptive leadership in the promotion of youth mental health can be one driver of cultural change not only among mental health workers and patients, but also in the society as a whole, including different sectors such as health, social service, justice, and education. I present a qualitative approach both to categorise leadership practice in Europe in traditional and adaptive styles and to understand if adaptive leadership is more effective than traditional leadership in the promotion of child and youth mental health. The attempt to increase social inclusion of people with mental health problems has posed a posed significant challenges in Europe, particularly in giving priority to services for children, adolescents, and older people. Stigma appears to continue to be a significant barrier to the effective promotion of mental health. In many European countries, there is lack of political will to implement evidence-based, sustainable policies and programs concerning mental health issues. The potential practical implications for the adaptive leadership approach are significant, considering the increasing mental health issues in Europe and worldwide.

Keywords: Mental health promotion, Stigma, Youth, Adaptive leadership.

International Journal of Clinical Neurosciences and Mental Health 2017; 4:1
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21035/ijcnmh.2017.4.1

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Review Article


Biomarkers and schizophrenia: a qualitative review - read full article

By: Joana Ribeiro da Silva and Sara Azevedo Pinto

Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a psychiatric disorder with a broad spectrum of biological and clinical manifestations of yet not completely clear pathophysiological mechanisms. Several lines of evidence have been supporting the idea that immunoinflammatory, oxidative, hormonal and cellular dysfunctions are implicated on the biomolecular basis of SCZ. However, accurate diagnosis and selection of appropriate treatments remains challenging as a result of the scarcity of objective tests. Furthermore, there is a compelling need to find biomarkers that could predict drug response and tailor pharmacological treatment, particularly in drug-naïve first episode psychosis (FEP). Hence, numerous technologies have been employed in order to search for SCZ biological markers, but evidence relating them to treatment efficacy is lacking. In this regard, some preliminary data suggest promising results. The current review provides information on: (1) potential biomarkers associated with biological disturbances and (2) biological markers associated with treatment response.

Keywords: Schizophrenia, Biomarkers, Treatment.

International Journal of Clinical Neurosciences and Mental Health 2017; 4:2
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21035/ijcnmh.2017.4.2

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The need for a dis-ease model for medicine: illness, sickness, disease, disorder and predicament - read full article

By: Simon R. Wilkinson

This paper presents an alternative to the standard medical model with its focus on disease. Medicine has moved to a high technology informed practice to the detriment of a more personalised and family anchored humane practice. This is a major complaint of patients and their carers. Through presenting a developmental perspective to the manner in which we learn to present and manage our discomforts, our primordial dis-ease takes centre-stage. This necessitates an understanding of the interrelationship of illness experience, sickness attributions, medical practice with the predicaments with which are challenged daily.

Keywords: Disease, Disorder, Diagnoses, Medical model, Illness, Sickness, Predicament.

International Journal of Clinical Neurosciences and Mental Health 2017; 4:3
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21035/ijcnmh.2017.4.3

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Integrating neuroscience in clinical psychiatry: a paradigm shift - read full article

By: Dev Roychowdhury

The field of psychiatry is witnessing debates over the diagnostic nosology that is used to understand and treat psychopathological conditions. Recent findings from the field have highlighted the lack of objective specificity that is required to comprehensively understand, delineate, and treat psychopathological manifestations. Studies in human neuroscience, on the other hand, have expanded our understanding of the brain and how it regulates human cognition, emotion, and behaviour. Considering these advances, it is evident that there is an insistent need for the reappraisal of current diagnostic standards and criteria, and the inclusion of a dynamic and translational clinical neuroscientific approach to study psychopathology. The present viewpoint comments on the challenges facing psychiatric diagnostic nosology and calls for the integration of neuroscientific approaches in clinical psychiatry.

Keywords: Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Diagnosis, Nosology, Translational research.

International Journal of Clinical Neurosciences and Mental Health 2017; 4:4
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21035/ijcnmh.2017.4.4

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Review Article


Information needs of family caregivers of dependent individuals - read full article

By: Pedro Nuno Neves, Carlos Sequeira, Lleixà-Fortuño Mar, Lia Sousa, and Carme Ferre-Grau

The increase in the number of dependent individuals means that more and more families find themselves in the situation of caregivers, with all the consequences that performing this role entails. Based on this reality, we considered it to be completely relevant to systematize knowledge in this area. This study aimed to identify the information needs of the family caregiver-dependent individuals in the available scientific literature, having performed an integrative review of the literature. The main results and conclusions indicate that the information needs of family caregivers can be grouped into three main themes: 1) caregiver knowledge and skills, 2) potential resources for the caregiver and 3) caregiver coping strategies and well-being. The comprehensive nature of the integrative review as the chosen method allowed us to get a good understanding of the information needs of family caregivers of dependent individuals. The relevance of this study to clinical practice is that, although it is still necessary to expand and enhance the scope of research in this area, we consider this information essential for all health professionals seeking to provide effective support to family caregivers, as well as to serve as support for the development of intervention projects and health services.

Keywords: Information needs, Health literacy, Family caregivers, Dependent individuals.

International Journal of Clinical Neurosciences and Mental Health 2017; 4:5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21035/ijcnmh.2017.4.5

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